What is the 19th Amendment?

Ratified on August 18, 1920, the 19th amendment to the United States Constitution states:

“The right of citizens of the United States to vote shall not be denied or abridged by the United States or by any State on account of sex.”

The passage and ratification of the amendment was the culmination of a long fought campaign by thousands of women and men over decades beginning in the early 19th century.

Passed by Congress on May 21, 1919 and by the Senate on June 4, 1919 the amendment then went to the states for ratification. 35 states approved the amendment but seven states, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Virginia opposed ratification. On August 18, 1919, Tennessee approved the amendment, allowing it to be fully ratified.

It took nearly 60 years for the remaining states to ratify the 19th amendment, the last state being Mississippi to approve the amendment in 1984.

Women voting rights map

Women voting rights map from the book Women, Politics, and Power: A Global Perspective by Pamela Paxton and Melanie M. Hughes. 

What is the woman’s suffrage movement?

Response to Exclusion