After Ratification

After the Ratification of the 19th amendment, black men and women in the Jim Crow South faced legal obstacles and physical threats against their enfranchisement. Southern states created barriers to voting including poll taxes, literacy tests, white primaries, implementing property and residency requirements, and physical intimidation and violence to prevent African Americans access to poling precincts.

Despite these barriers many African American activists continued to hold voter registration drives, and encouraged political participation through organizations like the National League of Republican Colored Women.

Women like Eartha M.M. White and Nannie H. Burroughs encouraged men and women to register to vote. The Republican Executive Committee of Duval County even thanked Eartha M.M. White for her efforts as a “leader of the colored women voters” on November 6, 1920 just three months after the ratification.

Leaflet: Women's Mass Meeting for Voter Registration
Minutes: Meeting of the Republican Executive Committee of Duval County Minutes: Meeting of the Republican Executive Committee of Duval County

Nannie Helen Burroughs

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